Synopsis of Cross Cultural Training Project Report
The globalization dreams present a new challenge for the Indian firms; the challenge to develop competent managers who would be able to work in new environments efficiently and will act as a bridge between the parent company and its subsidiaries. The firms thus need to develop systems and processes not only to train managers for expatriate assignments but also to handle cultural diversity. This task can be achieved by well designed cross-cultural training programs which will help employees in coping up with the stress and cultural shock while dealing with a new culture.
1.2 Research Methodology
- Research Objective is to understand the values, attitudes and behaviors of people in various countries that help companies to gain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace
- Exploratory Research is used to study the Cross Cultural Training
- The research is based on secondary data
1.3 The value of culture
Corporate culture is defined by a shared set of beliefs, myths and practices. As in any other social system, this shared culture binds people together. A strong corporate culture stabilizes performance. The shared beliefs that define a corporate culture function as an informal control mechanism that coordinates employee effort.
1.4 Common Mistakes Indian Makes
- Failure to understand the sense of time management that other cultures have.
- Lack of documentation—most things are kept in the head.
- Lack of e-mail etiquette.
- Not communicating in a precise manner.
1.5 Determinants of cultural differences
The study by Hofstede (1981,in Hofstede, 2001) defined and differentiated between cultures on various dimensions – viz. collectivism vs. individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. feminism and long vs. short term orientation.
1.6 Defining Cross-cultural training
The cross-cultural training in general can be defined as “Any intervention aimed at increasing an individual’s capability to cope with and work in foreign environment” (Tung, 1981, in Zakaria, 2000). Hence cross-cultural training involves all the methods like lectures, simulation etc. used to make the person familiar with a different culture.
1.7 Benefits of Cross Cultural Training
- Cross cultural training helps people learn more about themselves through learning about others.
- Cross cultural training promotes self-confidence in individuals and teams through empowering them with a sense of control over previously difficult challenges in the workplace.
- Cross cultural training addresses problems in the workplace at a very different angle to traditional methods.
1.8 Design of cross-cultural training
The cross-cultural training should have components related to both general orientation and specific skill development. The component of general orientation here consists of self assessment (dealing with change, stress management and identifying attributes) and cultural awareness (general dimensions, national values and work place incidents). The specific development on the other hand consists of knowledge acquisition (area studies, language studies and host attitudes) and skills training (case studies, area simulation and behavior modeling).
1.9 The Training Methods
The various cross-cultural training methods can be explained as follows (as described by Bhawuk and Brislin, 2000):
- Cultural assimilator
- Contrast American method
- Self reference criterion (SRC)
- Area simulation
- Cultural self awareness
1.10 Defining Expatriate Competencies
The cross-cultural skills required for successful expatriate assignment can be listed broadly as (Hofstede, 2001):
- The capacity to communicate respect
- The capacity to be non judgmental
- The capacity to understand relativity of one’s own knowledge and perception
- The capacity to display empathy
- The capacity to be flexible
- Tolerance for ambiguity
1.11 International Business Etiquette Tips by Lydia Ramsey
- Building relationships
- Dressing conservatively
- Observe the hierarchy
- Understanding the handshake
- Using titles and correct forms of address
- Exchanging business cards
- Valuing time
- Honoring space issues
1.12 Cultural Studies of Various Countries
This section studies how the culture of China, Germany, India, Malaysia, Japan on the following parameters and also suggests the ways to corporate to overcome the cultural barriers.
- Making appointments
- Guidelines for business dress
- Welcome topics of conversation
- Overview of German management and practices
- Addressing others with respect
- Selecting and presenting an appropriate business gift
- What you should know before negotiating
- Entertaining for business success
- The business model of many upcoming industries like the information technology sector, Telecom and Business Process Outsourcing, core sector companies like Manufacturing and Mining is dependent heavily on the foreign markets.
- This increases the need of professionals working in foreign cultural settings.
- The merger and acquisition activity especially the cross-border acquisitions have reached much higher levels
- China is a collectivist society and focuses on strong relationships while Germany is an Individual oriented Society.
With the growing influence of foreign markets and increasing growth prospects for multinational business models, it is of high importance that companies prepare their employees to be fit for global assignments. A well structured cross-cultural training will help the employees to prepare for coping with the changes in the working styles, beliefs and values they are expected to face.
- These cultural differences may affect motivational factors, collectivism at work place, organizational structure design etc
- The term cross-cultural training hence is broad enough to include differences in areas like language abilities, business etiquettes, beliefs and values, social system, negotiating styles etc. of any culture.